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Applications of Monel 400

Views: 4     Author: Wang     Publish Time: 2024-03-12      Origin: Site

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Introduction to UNS N04400

Monel 400 is a nickel-copper alloy (about 67% Ni – 23% Cu) that is resistant to sea water and steam at high temperatures as well as to salt and caustic solutions. Alloy 400 is a solid solution alloy that can only be hardened by cold working. This nickel alloy exhibits characteristics like good corrosion resistance, good weldability and high strength. A low corrosion rate in rapidly flowing brackish or seawater combined with excellent resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in most freshwaters, and its resistance to a variety of corrosive conditions led to its wide use in marine applications and other non-oxidizing chloride solutions.

With strong strength across a wide range of temperatures, Monel 400 reaches up to 1000°F. It is a material that deforms without losing the toughness, Nickel-Copper alloy that can stand against a wide range of harsh or difficult conditions. From mild oxidizing to neutral to reducing moderately this alloy is used in a variety of circumstances. This substance is also frequently used in marine settings and other non-oxidizing chloride solutions.

Monel 400 also includes small amounts of iron, manganese, silicon, and carbon. A reasonable amount of nickel makes it resistant to the corrosive, acidic environment. It also makes the material durable under extreme environmental conditions. Adding copper ensures that the material has excellent malleability and resistance to high velocity and seawater corrosion.There are multiple variations of Monel alloys, starting with Monel 400, which contains at least 63% nickel, between 29% and 34% copper, between 2% and 2.5% iron, and between 1.5% and 2% manganese. Monel 405 adds no more than 0.5% silicon, and Monel K-500 adds between 2.3% and 3.15% aluminum and between 0.35% and 0.85% titanium. These and other variations all are valued for their resistance to attack by acids and alkalis, as well as for their high mechanical strength and good ductility.

While it is a very useful metal, it is cost-prohibitive in most applications. Monel 400 costs five to 10 times as much as ordinary nickel or copper. As a result, it is used rarely—and only when no other metal could do the same job. As an example, Monel 400 is one of the few alloys that maintains its strength in sub-zero temperatures, so it is used in those circumstances.

Physical properties of UNS N04400

High strength corrosion resistance:

Due to its exceptional strength and corrosion-resistant properties, the Monel 400 Pipes, functions at a wide range of temperatures and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Aviation and marine applications use monel grades because it is resistant to both steam and marine atmospheres, it is commonly used for the pipe.

Increase in Toughness:

Because of its improved hardness, Monel 400 Alloys may be utilized for oil exploration, which is considered beneficial. It is also very resistant to hydrofluoric acid corrosion, allowing it to be employed in the manufacture of valves, stalks, and internal fittings where other materials would corrode. It has the same corrosion resistance as Monel Alloy 400, although it may be more prone to stress-corrosion cracking in age-hard circumstances which leads to combining the Monel Alloys to raise greater strength.


The Monel 400 Sheets and Plates springs are stronger in strength compared to pure nickel and can also survive in many forms of corrosion which makes them adaptable and affordable. Some monel grades are used in different sectors from aerospace to marine fields. They are also crucial in the oil and gas business, from extraction through storage, production, and refining.

The following table describes the properties of Monel 400. Relative to other similar metals, it unusually is strong and corrosion-resistant.


Value (Metric)

Value (Imperial)


8.80*103 kg/m3

549 lb/ft3

Modulus of Elasticity

179 GPa

26,000 ksi

Thermal Expansion (20ºC)

13.9*10-6º C-1

7.7*10-6 in/(in*ºF)

Specific Heat Capacity

427 J/(kg*K)

0.102 BTU/(lb*ºF)

Thermal Conductivity

21.8 W/(m*K)

151 BTU*in/(hr*ft2*ºF)

Electric Resistivity

54.7*10-8 Ohm*m

54.7*10-6 Ohm*cm

Tensile Strength (Annealed)

550 MPa

79,800 psi

Yield Strength (Annealed)

240 MPa

34,800 psi




Liquidus Temperature

1,350º C

2,460º F

Solidus Temperature

1,300º C

2,370º F

Applications for Monel 400

Marine Engineering

Monel 400 forgings are highly resistant to seawater corrosion, making them ideal for marine engineering applications. This material is commonly used in shipbuilding, oil and gas platforms, and underwater equipment. Monel 400 has been used in the marine industry for over a century, which is a testament to its reliability and durability.

Chemical Processing Equipment

Monel 400 forgings are also highly resistant to various chemicals, making them ideal for chemical processing equipment such as valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. Monel 400 can withstand high temperatures without losing its strength or becoming brittle. This makes it an excellent material for use in chemical processing plants where harsh chemicals may be present. Additionally, Monel 400 has excellent wear resistance, which helps it stand up against abrasive chemicals over time.


Monel 400 forgings are ideal for electronic applications because of their low magnetic permeability, which makes them useful in various components. This material is often used for electrical contacts, switchgear components, and connectors.

Aerospace Components

Monel 400 forgings are also commonly used in aerospace components due to their superior strength and corrosion resistance properties. The ability of Monel 400 forgings to resist high temperatures makes them an ideal choice for engine components such as exhaust manifolds and turbochargers. Additionally, the superior corrosion resistance of Monel 400 makes it an ideal material for components exposed to harsh environments, such as jet engines and aircraft wings.

Medical Industry

Monel 400 forgings are also used in the medical industry because they are biocompatible and corrosion-resistant. This material is often used for implants, medical instruments, and other equipment.

Power Generation

Monel 400 forgings are frequently used in power generation applications due to their superior strength and corrosion resistance properties. The material can be used in components such as turbine blades, impellers, valves, and pumps exposed to high temperatures, pressures, or corrosive environments. Monel 400 is also nonmagnetic, making it an ideal choice for components operating without interference from magnetic fields.

Oil & Gas Industry

Monel 400 forgings are frequently used in the oil and gas industry due to their superior corrosion resistance properties and excellent strength characteristics. The material can be used in various components, including valve fittings exposed to corrosive environments or high pressure/temperature conditions such as offshore platforms or pipelines transporting oil gas products over long distances underground or through the sea bed.

In conclusion, Monel 400 forgings are a versatile material that can be applied to many industries that require corrosion-resistant and high-strength materials. Its unique properties make it a top choice for marine engineering, chemical processing, electronics, aerospace, and medical industries. Monel 400 forgings have many advantages over other materials, including their durability and longevity. At Celtic Engineering, we specialize in providing high-quality Monel 400 forgings to meet the needs of various industries. Contact us today to learn more about how Monel 400 can benefit your industry and needs.

JN Alloy is a distributor and product manufacturer of stainless steel, duplex steel, and nickel.
Tel: +86 19339900211
Add: Stainless steel Market 289, Xinwu District , Wuxi, China
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